Napravljena DNA memorija visokog kapaciteta

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Nature: Znanstvenici su sintetizirali umjetnu DNA u koju su pohranili datoteke veličine gotovo 1 MB, poslali ju na drugi kontinent i dekodirali podatke bez i jedne greške. Počinje era memorija ogromnog kapaciteta i visoke pouzdanosti za vrlo dugotrajna arhiviranja.

Istraživanja su do sada pokazala da je moguće pohraniti male količine podataka u umjetno napravljenu DNA. Sada su znanstvenici iz Europskih i američkih instituta u DNA pohranili 154 Shakespearovih soneta u ASCII formatu, znanstveni rad u PDF datoteci, fotografiju srednje rezolucije zgrade Europskog Bioinformatičkog Instituta u JPEG formatu, 26 sekundi poznatog govora Martin Luther Kinga „I have a dream“ u MP3 formatu te program za Huffman kodiranje koji je korišten u ovom istraživanju. Kodirali su ukupno 757,051 bytea. Podaci su spremljeni sa četverostrukom zalihošću uz korištenje reverznog komplementa, pariteta te indeksiranja dijelova datoteka kao mehanizama za zaštitu i ispravljanje pogrešaka kod čitanja.DNA je iz USA gdje je sintetizirana, poslana u EU gdje je pročitana sa 100%-tnom točnošću.

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Quantum Computer Built Inside a Diamond

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University of Southern California (USC) scientists and a team of researchers have built a quantum computer in a diamond to demonstrate the viability of solid-state quantum computers. The quantum computing system featured two quantum bits, known as qubits, made of subatomic particles. The researchers took advantage of the impurities in the diamond, using a rogue nitrogen nucleus as the first qubit, and a flawed electron as the second qubit. The researchers say the diamond-based quantum computer is the first to incorporate decoherence protection, using microwave pulses to continually switch the direction of the electron spin rotation. The researchers demonstrated that the diamond-incased system operates in quantum fashion by seeing how closely it matched Grover's algorithm, which is a search of an unsorted database. Their system was able to find the correct answer as part of Grover's algorithm on the first attempt about 95 percent of the time. The researchers say the future of quantum computing may reside in solid-state quantum computers because they can be easily scaled up in size, in contrast to earlier gas- and liquid-state systems. More information can be found at USC News web site.

New Image Sensors Could Lead to Focusing Photos After They're Taken

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Cornell University researchers led by professor Alyosha Molnar have used new computational methods and traditional chip-making techniques to develop a new generation of image sensors. The sensors give detailed readouts of the intensity and the incident angle of light as it strikes the sensor, Researchers say that could result in a new generation of three-dimensional cameras with the ability to focus photos after they are taken. The key to the technology is a uniquely designed pixel for a standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. The design enables the chip to detect information about the incident angle of the light striking it with more detail than a normal CMOS imager. This information can be analyzed using the Fourier Transform, which extracts the depth of objects in an image and allows for computational refocusing of the image taken. The researchers' chip can thus far capture an image at 150,000 pixels with the assistance of a standard Nikon camera lens, but they say this could be enhanced with bigger chips. More details can be found at Cornell University web site.

Scientists lead the way to revolution in artificial intelligence

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University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers are translating the "Super-Turing" computation into an adaptable computational system that learns and evolves, using input from the environment the same way human brains do. The model "is a mathematical formulation of the brain’s neural networks with their adaptive abilities," says Amherst computer scientist Hava Siegelmann. When the model is installed in a new environment, the new Super-Turing model results in an exponentially greater set of behaviors than the classical computer or the original Turing model. The researchers say the new Super-Turing machine will be flexible, adaptable, and economical. Siegelmann says that The Super-Turing framework allows a stimulus to actually change the computer at each computational step, behaving in a way much closer to that of the constantly adapting and evolving brain. Original news was published at News & Medija Relations web site.

Self-sculpting sand

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers are developing a type of reconfigurable robotic system called smart sand. The individual sand grains pass messages back and forth and selectively attach to each other to form a three-dimensional object. MIT professor, Daniela Rus, says the biggest challenge in developing the smart sand algorithm is that the individual grains have very few computational resources. The grains first pass messages to each other to determine which have missing neighbors. Those with missing neighbors are either on the perimeter of the pile or the perimeter of the embedded shape. Once the grains surrounding the embedded shape identify themselves, they pass messages to other grains a fixed distance away. When the perimeter of the duplicate is established, the grains outside it can disconnect from their neighbors. The researchers built cubes, or “smart pebbles,” to test their algorithm. The cubes have four faces studded with electro permanent magnets, materials that can be magnetized or demagnetized with a single magnetic pulse. The grains use the magnets to connect to each other, to communicate, and to share power. Each grain also is equipped with a microprocessor that can store 32 kilobytes of code and has two kilobytes of working memory. More information can be found at MITnews web site.

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